A miscarriage is the loss of growing fetus from conception to 20 weeks of gestation( the period between birth and conception). The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists reveals that 10-25% of all clinically recognized pregnancies have the chance of undergoing miscarriage.
Losing your growing baby is equally painful and hazardous to the health of the mother, so, it's crucial to know the signs and symptoms as well as proper treatment of this medical condition. But first, let's jump in to know the causes of miscarriage.
What causes Miscarriage?
There's no definitive single cause that results in miscarriage as there are many reasons behind it, ranging from genetic to hormonal abnormalities or reproductive tract infections.
Source: Health & Medical Information
However, most of the miscarriages occur during the first trimester of pregnancy due to different causes including, lack of successful implantation of the zygote into the uterus, chromosomal abnormality of zygote and progesterone deficiency.
Lifestyle choices like smoking, drug abuse, excessive caffeine and exposure to radiation.
Age- over 35 increases the risk of miscarriage
Diseases like diabetes and thyroid problems
Cervical insufficiency i.e weakness of cervix which usually occurs in the second trimester
Trauma or accidents
Signs and Symptoms of miscarriage
The first symptom of miscarriage is vaginal bleeding. Bleeding progresses from light to heavy and if bleeding persists for longer time, an immediate doctor visit is required.
Source: Mom Discuss
Other common symptoms involve:
Intolerable back pain
White to pink vaginal discharge
Tissue with clot like material passing from vagina
Diagnosis of Miscarriage
The major symptom that diagnoses miscarriage is vaginal bleeding during early pregnancy, followed by severe abdominal pain and fever.
Obstetric Ultrasound Technique to detect miscarriage, Source: Very well
Clinically miscarriage can be confirmed by obstetric ultrasound technique and examination of passed tissue. Upon identification of the cause of miscarriage as chromosomal abnormalities, genetic testing of both parents is suggested to be done.
Treatment and Prophylaxis
There's no specific treatment for miscarriage as it's a biological phenomenon. However, it's important to treat the complications that potentially arise following miscarriage like hemorrhaging and infection.
If the bleeding persists for longer time, a medical procedure is required which can be done by Dilation and Curettage(a surgery done to remove tissue from inside the uterus).
Specific medicines and drugs are prescribed to prevent bleeding after treatment. Miscarriage can be prevented if we decrease the risk factors like good prenatal care, no drugs or alcohol consumption, avoid any infections or radiation.
If a miscarriage occurs more than once, then it's better to consult a medical practitioner and find out the main reason.
Miscarriage brings emotional trauma too and it's vital that she gets full support from her family and friends during that time.